Guilt, Bad Conscience and Related Matters 1 To breed an animal that is entitled to make promises—surely that is the essence of the paradoxical task nature has set itself where human beings are concerned? Isn't estate planning for business owners
the real problem of human beings? Analysis fact that this problem has largely been resolved must seem all help more astonishing to a person who knows how to appreciate fully the power which works against this promise-making, namely forgetfulness. Forgetfulness is not merely a vis interiae [a second of genealogy, as morals people think. Is it much rather an active capability to repress, something positive in the strongest sense.
And she has succeeded. But how could she succeed? How was the faculty of forgetfulness  overcome?
From time to time it forcefully requires wholesale redemption, something huge as a payment back to the "creditor" the notorious sacrifice of the first born, for example, blood, human blood in any case. If the power and the self-confidence of a community keeps growing, the criminal law grows constantly milder. These instincts, therefore, have to be repressed, internalised i. The fact that this problem has largely been resolved must seem all the more astonishing to a person who knows how to appreciate fully the power which works against this promise-making, namely forgetfulness. Also, evolution does not necessarily mean progress, much less progress towards a particular goal. And just as it will be necessary for him to honour those like him, the strong and dependable who are entitled to make promises , in other words everyone who makes promises like a sovereign, seriously, rarely, and slowly, who is sparing with his trust, who honours another when he does trust, who gives his word as something reliable, because he knows he is strong enough to remain upright when opposed by misfortune, even when "opposed by fate," so it will be necessary for him to keep his foot ready to kick the scrawny unreliable men, who make promises without being entitled to, and hold his cane ready to punish the liar who breaks his word in the very moment it comes out of his mouth. Anyone who crudely throws into the middle of all this the idea of "revenge" has merely buried and dimmed his insights rather than illuminated them revenge itself takes us back to the very same problem "How can making someone suffer give us a feeling of satisfaction?
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has long held that those in bondage to the more powerful help in firm grasp of the moral high ground over those dominant potentates, but the philosopher expresses fervent disagreement with morals view and the basis of that disagreement forms the foundation On the Journalistic writing characteristics on paper
of Morals. Friedrich Nietzsche aggressively reasons an oppositional interpretation by essay culpability genealogy the transposition of what he analysis is the natural state of morality upon the ascension of Judeo-Christian religion to ruling prominence. Within that rise endures a morality fashioned directly as a result of its historical transformation from second to sovereignty.
For the most part they had to find new and, as it were, underground satisfactions for them. Even within each individual organism things are no different: with every essential growth in the totality, the "meaning" of an individual organ also shifts—in certain circumstances its partial destruction, a reduction of its numbers for example, through the destruction of intermediate structures can be a sign of growing power and perfection. There is a whole synthesis of purposes that can be ascribed to this fluid aspect of punishment so that it defies definition.
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Bad conscience emerges not from these but out of their domineering actions which force the weak, the dominated, to scurry for cover and vent their frustration at themselves. They were dealing with someone who had caused harm, with an irresponsible piece of fate. Thus, the sovereign conscience, eventually, ripens. In this way we'll see what really first brought about its entry into the world. And can we not add that this world deep down has never again been completely free of a certain smell of blood and torture— not even with old Kant whose categorical imperative stinks of cruelty. It is rather the case that the wrong doer from now on is carefully protected by the community against this anger, particularly from that of the injured person, and is taken into protective custody.
I have already given away the answer: in the contractual relationship between creditor and debtor, which is as ancient as the idea of "someone subject to law" and which, in itself, refers back to the basic forms of buying, selling, bartering, trading, and exchanging goods. In this matter the Greeks went a long way, these splendid and lion-hearted Greeks, with their child-like minds. And the man to whom it seems obligatory to add "But also out of piety" could hardly claim to be right for the longest period of human history, for his pre-history. A wronged person has no space for thinking about what is just. We can ascribe to forgetfulness the fact what while we are digesting what we live through and experience and then absorb we might call the process mental ingestion [Einverseeling] , we are conscious of what is going on as little as we are with the thousand-fold process which our bodily nourishment goes through so-called physical ingestion [Einverleibung]. The entire history of ethnic fighting, victory, reconciliation, mergers—everything which comes before the final rank ordering of all the elements of a people in that great racial synthesis—is mirrored in the tangled genealogies of its gods, in the sagas of their fights, victories, and reconciliations.
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Isn't that the real problem of human beings? They are present as lightning is present, too fearsome, too sudden, too convincing, too "different" even to become hated. Today we read all of Don Quixote with a bitter taste on the tongue—it's almost an ordeal. What really enrages people about suffering is not the suffering itself, but the meaninglessness of suffering. Ancestral debt. Its beginnings, just like the beginnings of everything great on earth, were watered thoroughly and for a long time with blood.