Paper Web of Science database was searched for publications on AR in reality. Bibliographic coupling of the countries, bibliographic coupling of the institutions, bibliographic research of the journals, bibliographic coupling of the publications, augmented coupling of the authors, and co-occurrences of the author keywords were examined for the selected publications. Bibliographic visualisation methods were used to analyse and visualise the characteristics of the selected publications.
Based essay this formula, we included all admission that had online ACC of at least reality. This resulted in a final set of paper that we reviewed in detail. We deliberately excluded augmented more recent than because most research these vocabulary gather college citations yet.
Systematic Review ARTICLE
This data was collected over several months of instruction. More in detail, in education several AR applications have been developed in the last few years showing the positive effects of this technology in supporting learning, such as an increased-on content understanding and memory preservation, as well as on learning motivation Radu, , At the same time, Rosenberg and Feiner developed an AR fixture for maintenance assistance, showing that the operator performance enhanced by added virtual information on the fixture to repair Rosenberg, Discussion User interaction is a cross-cutting focus of research, and as such, does not fall neatly within an application category, but deeply influences user experience in all categories. Eight studies collected only subjective data, another eight collected both subjective and objective data, and the remaining two collected only objective data.
With the advent of modern head mounted devices such the Microsoft HoloLens, new types of collaborations can be created, including opportunities for enhanced face to face collaboration. The keywords used by the authors to describe their papers highlight a strong interest in interaction, interfaces, and users. They developed a mobile phone-based AR teaching tool for 3D model visualization and architectural projects for classroom learning. This shows a lack of experimentation in real world conditions. For example, Hatala and Wakkary created a museum guide educating users about the objects in the museum and Szymczak et al. Thus, it is clear that VR field has changed in areas other than at the technological level.
Three papers investigated education content themed around tourism and mainly focused on subjective opinion. Moreover, the availability of free tools for VR experimental and computational use has made it easy to access any field Riva et al. Furthermore, even if the AR experiences could seem different from VRs, the quality of AR experience could be considered similarly.
We then met to discuss our reviews, and reached a consensus about what review data would be captured. Temporal and hybrid metrics include citation burstness and novelty. Reviewing Process In order to review this many papers, we randomly divided them among the authors for individual review. In terms of the number of participants used median in each study, Tourism and Exploration, and Education were the highest among all categories with an average of 28 participants per study. Virtual Reality Technologies Technologically, the devices used in the virtual environments play an important role in the creation of successful virtual experiences. Indeed, like in VR, feeling of presence, level of realism, and the degree of reality represent the main features that can be considered the indicators of the quality of AR experiences.
However, the history of VR technology is longer than it may seem: the concept of Research was formulated paper the s and the first commercial VR tools appeared in the late s. For this reason, during the last 20 years, s of reality explored the processes, effects, and applications of this technology producing s of scientific papers. What is the outcome augmented this significant research work?
Figure 1A shows the fraction of the total number of AR papers that report user studies, Figure 1B analyzes the kind of display used, Figure 1C categorizes the experiments into application areas, and Figure 1D categorizes the papers according to the kind of experiment that was conducted. Sixteen studies collected only subjective data, 14 collected only objective data, and 53 studies collected both types of data. Guidance and maintenance are other prominent keywords that authors used. Figure 1C shows the change over time in number of AR papers with user studies in these categories. Laparoscopy, rehabilitation, and phobia were topics of primary interest.
More recently, many videogames companies have improved the development and quality of VR devices, like Oculus Rift, or HTC Vive that provide a wider field of view and lower latency. A majority of the papers reported a gaming application while fewer papers reported about other forms of entertainment applications. Laparoscopy, rehabilitation, and phobia were topics of primary interest. Keywords: virtual reality, augmented reality, quantitative psychology, measurement, psychometrics, scientometrics, computational psychometrics, mathematical psychology Introduction In the last 5 years, virtual reality VR and augmented reality AR have attracted the interest of investors and the general public, especially after Mark Zuckerberg bought Oculus for two billion dollars Luckerson, ; Castelvecchi, Temporal and hybrid metrics include citation burstness and novelty. Another interesting area to explore further is making these educational interfaces adaptive to the users cognitive load.
Discussion It is clear that advances in mobile connectivity, CPU and GPU processing capabilities, wearable form factors, tracking robustness, and accessibility to commercial-grade game creation tools is leading to more interest in AR for entertainment. Overall these papers show that in the education space a variety of evaluation methods can be used, focusing both on educational outcomes and application usability. All the algorithms are detailed Chen et al. For example, in the treatment of anxiety disorders, like phobias, AR exposure therapy ARET showed its efficacy in one-session treatment, maintaining the positive impact in a follow-up at 1 or 3 month after.
Work needs to be done toward making AR-based remote collaboration akin to the real world with not only shared understanding of the task but also shared understanding of the other collaborators emotional and physiological states. There is also a noticeable increase in the number of user studies in educational applications over time. Representative Paper The paper from Fonseca et al. Tsai and G.
We believe performing more industrial AR studies in the natural environment will lead to more-usable results, as controlled environments may not expose the users to the issues that they face in real-world setups. Authors used five-point Likert-scale questions as the primary instrument. This data was collected over several months of instruction.
Summary of user studies in Entertainment and Gaming application area. Only three out of 15 studies were performed in natural settings and there were no pilot studies reported, which is an area for potential improvement.