The assumptions that we hold to be true about the issue upon which we base our claims or beliefs. The central concepts, ideas, principles and theories that we use in reasoning about the problem. The evidence, data or information provided to support the claims we make about the issue or problem. The interpretations, inferences, reasoning, and lines of formulated thought that lead to our conclusions. The implications and consequences that follow from the positions we hold on the issue or problem.
When nurses reason they use these elements of thought to figure out difficult questions and recognize that their thinking could be flawed or limited by lack of in-depth understanding of the problem at issue therefore, they critically monitor their thinking to ensure that their thinking meets the standards for intellectual thought. In summary, as a critical thinker, I am able to figure out by reading or listening critically what nurse scholars believe about nursing and on what basis nurses act as they practice nursing.
To do this I must clearly comprehend the thinking of another person by figuring out the logic of their thinking. I must comprehend clearly the thinking of myself by figuring out my own thoughts on the subject at hand. Finally, I must use intellectual standards to evaluate my thinking and the thinking of others on a given problem such that I can come to a defensible, well reasoned view of the problem and therefore, know what to believe or do in a given circumstance.
To do this I must be committed to developing my mind as a self-directed, independent critical thinker. I must value above all else the intellectual traits and habits of thought that critical thinkers possess. Intellectual Traits and Habits of Thought To develop as a critical thinker one must be motivated to develop the attitudes and dispositions of a fair-minded thinker. That is, one must be willing to suspend judgments until one truly understands another point of view and can articulate the position that another person holds on an issue.
Nurses come to reasoned judgments so that they can act competently in practice. They continually monitor their thinking; questioning and reflecting on the quality of thinking occurring in how they reason about nursing practice. Sloppy, superficial thinking leads to poor practice. Critical inquiry is an important quality for safe practice. Nurses must pose questions about practice and be willing to attempt to seek answers about practice.
This means that you must reflect on the process that lead to the conclusion. You should self correct in this process as needed. Be on alert for bias and improper assumptions.
Critical Thinking Pitfalls Errors that occur in critical thinking in nursing can cause incorrect conclusions. This is particularly dangerous in nursing, because an incorrect conclusion can lead to incorrect clinical actions. Illogical Processes Critical thinking can fail when logic is improperly used. One common fallacy is when one uses a circular argument. A nurse could write a nursing diagnosis that reads Coping is ineffective, as can be seen by the inability to cope.
A good start is to develop an inquisitive mind, which leads to questioning, and a quest for knowledge and understanding of the complex nature of the human body and its functioning. Critical thinking is self-guided and self-disciplined. Nursing interventions can be reasonably explained through evidence-based research studies and work experience.
A strong sense of focus and discipline is also important for critical thinking to work. If thinking is unchecked, nurses can be easily misguided and deliver flawed patient care. Each person has developed its own concepts, where they are nested by others, either based on personal experience or study or other activities. For a clear understanding of the situation of the patient, the nurse and the patient should be in agreement with the importance of concepts.
People also live under certain assumptions. Many believe that people generally have a generous nature, while others believe that it is a human tendency to act in its own interest. The nurse must believe that life should be considered as invaluable regardless of the condition of the patient, with the patient often believing that quality of life is more important than duration.
Nurse and patient, realizing that they can make choices based on these assumptions, can work together for a common acceptable nursing plan Independence of Thought Individuals who apply critical thinking as they mature acquire knowledge and experiences and examine their beliefs under new evidence. Impartiality Those who apply critical thinking are independent in different ways, based on evidence and not panic or personal and group biases.
The nurse takes into account the views of both the younger and older family members. Perspicacity into Personal and Social Factors Those who are using critical thinking and accept the possibility that their personal prejudices, social pressures and habits could affect their judgment greatly.
So, they try to actively interpret their prejudices whenever they think and decide. Humble Cerebration and Deferral Crisis Humble intellect means to have someone aware of the limits of his own knowledge. So, those who apply critical thinking are willing to admit they do not know something and believe that what we all consider rectum cannot always be true, because new evidence may emerge.
Spiritual Courage The values and beliefs are not always obtained by rationality, meaning opinions that have been researched and proven that are supported by reasons and information. The courage should be true to their new ground in situations where social penalties for incompatibility are strict.
In many cases the nurses who supported an attitude according to which if investigations are proved wrong, they are canceled. Integrity Use of critical thinking to mentally intact individuals question their knowledge and beliefs quickly and thoroughly and cause the knowledge of others so that they are willing to admit and appreciate inconsistencies of both their own beliefs and the beliefs of the others. Perseverance The perseverance shown by nurses in exploring effective solutions for patient problems and nursing each determination helps to clarify concepts and to distinguish related issues despite the difficulties and failures.
Using critical thinking they resist the temptation to find a quick and simple answer to avoid uncomfortable situations such as confusion and frustration. Confidence in the Justification According to critical thinking through well motivated reasoning leads to reliable conclusions.
Using critical thinking nurses develop both the inductive and the deductive reasoning. The nurse gaining more experience of mental process and improvement, does not hesitate to disagree and be troubled thereby acting as a role model to colleagues, inspiring them to develop critical thinking. Interesting Thoughts and Feelings for Research Nurses need to recognize, examine and inspect or modify the emotions involved with critical thinking. So, if they feel anger, guilt and frustration for some event in their work, they should follow some steps: To restrict the operations for a while to avoid hasty conclusions and impulsive decisions, discuss negative feelings with a trusted, consume some of the energy produced by emotion, for example, doing calisthenics or walking, ponder over the situation and determine whether the emotional response is appropriate.
After intense feelings abate, the nurse will be able to proceed objectively to necessary conclusions and to take the necessary decisions. Curiosity The internal debate, that has constantly in mind that the use of critical thinking is full of questions.
So, a research nurse calculates traditions but does not hesitate to challenge them if you do not confirm their validity and reliability. Thus, higher critical thinking skills are put into operation, when some new ideas or needs are displayed to take a decision beyond routine. The nursing process is a systematic, rational method of planning and providing specialized nursing The steps of the nursing process are assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, evaluation.
The health care is setting the priorities of the day to apply critical thinking Problem Solving Problem solving helps to acquire knowledge as nurse obtains information explaining the nature of the problem and recommends possible solutions which evaluate and select the application of the best without rejecting them in a possible appeal of the original. Also, it approaches issues when solving problems that are often used is the empirical method, intuition, research process and the scientific method modified Experiential Method This method is mainly used in home care nursing interventions where they cannot function properly because of the tools and equipment that are incomplete Intuition Intuition is the perception and understanding of concepts without the conscious use of reasoning.
As a problem solving approach, as it is considered by many, is a form of guessing and therefore is characterized as an inappropriate basis for nursing decisions. But others see it as important and legitimate aspect of the crisis gained through knowledge and experience. The clinical experience allows the practitioner to recognize items and standards and approach the right conclusions.
The nurse when facing multiple needs of patients, should set priorities and decide the order in which they help their patients. Interesting Thoughts and Feelings for Research Nurses need to recognize, examine and inspect or modify the emotions involved with critical thinking. The nurse takes into account the views of both the younger and older family members. NJ: Prentice Hall Health; Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly, Greece.
Oermann M. A systematic review of critical thinking in nursing education. The concepts are ideas and opinions that represent objects in the real world and the importance of them. The focus of classroom and clinical activities is to develop the nurse's understanding of scholarly, academic work through the effective use of intellectual abilities and skills.